IMR Press / FBL / Volume 26 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.2741/4916

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Hydrolysis of chiral organophosphorus compounds by phosphotriesterases and mammalian paraoxonase-1
Show Less
1 Laboratorio de Neuroproteccion, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Morelos, Mexico
2 Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenierias, Universidad Popular de la Chontalpa, H. Cardenas, Tabasco, Mexico
3 Instituto de Bioingenieria, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Elche, Alicante, Spain
Send correspondence to: Antonio Monroy-Noyola, Laboratorio de Neuroproteccion, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col, Chamilpa C.P. 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico, Tel: 52-777-329-79-89, Fax: 52-777-329-70-89, E-mail:
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2021, 26(4), 744–770;
Published: 1 October 2020

Some organophosphorus compounds (OPs), which are used in the manufacturing of insecticides and nerve agents, are racemic mixtures with at least one chiral center with a phosphorus atom. Acute exposure of humans to these mixtures induces the covalent modification of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and neuropathy target esterase (NTE) and causes a cholinergic syndrome or organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy syndrome (OPIDP). These irreversible neurological effects are due to the stereoselective interaction of the racemic OPs with these B-esterases (AChE and NTE) and such interactions have been studied in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro, using stereoselective hydrolysis by A-esterases or phosphotriesterases (PTEs) and the PTE from Pseudomonas diminuta, and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) from mammalian serum. PON1 has a limited hydrolytic potential of the racemic OPs, while the bacterial PTE exhibits a significant catalytic activity on the less toxic isomers P(+) of the nerve agents. Avian serum albumin also shows a hydrolyzing capacity of chiral OPs with oxo and thio forms. There are ongoing environmental and bioremediation efforts to design and produce recombinants as bio-scavengers of OPs.

Chiral organophosphorus
Calcium. copper
Nervous agent
Figure 1
Back to top