Academic Editor: Pietro Gentile
Platelets are small, anucleate cellular fragments, which are produced by megakaryocytes, and play a key role in hemostasis and thrombus formation. The differentiation of megakaryocytes from hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow and the development of megakaryocytes into platelets is a complex process. Various regulatory factorsin megakaryopoiesis including cytokines, growth factors, transcription factors, and gene expression, are all involved in the process of thrombocytopoiesis and play distinct roles in different stages of megakaryocytes development. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge ofmultiple regulatory factors including the TPO/Mpl signaling pathway, transcription factors, RasGTPases family, estrogen, and microRNAs. Altogether, we aimed to discuss more molecular mechanisms of megakaryocytes differentiation and maturation, and possess a better understanding of platelet formation.