IMR Press / FBE / Volume 4 / Issue 6 / DOI: 10.2741/e534

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

Immuno- inflammatory markers of bipolar disorder: a review of evidence

Show Less
1 Universite Paris Est, Faculte de medecine, Creteil, 94000, France
2 AP-HP, Hopital H. Mondor, A. Chenevier, Pole de psychiatrie, Creteil, 94000, France
3 INSERM, U955, Equipe Psychiatrie Genetique, Creteil, 94000, France
4 INSERM, U940, Immunologie et Histocompatibilite, Hopital Saint-Louis, Paris 75010, France
5 Fondation FondaMental, Creteil, 94000, France

Academic Editor: Bruno Etain

Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2012, 4(6), 2170–2182;
Published: 1 January 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Markers in bipolar disorders)


Bipolar is a severe psychiatric disorder which ethiopathogenesis remains unclear. Despite a clearly established heritability, genetic studies have failed to elucidate the underlying mechanism of bipolar disorder, most likely due to the contributing role of environmental factors in the genesis of the disease. Environmental factors have been consistently described to induce immuno-inflammation dysfunction, which are also known to play a role in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorders as due to the combined actions of small effects in many different genes interacting with environmental factors). Several mechanisms might explain the proinflammatory processes observed in bipolar disorder. Emerging evidence support the pathophysiological role of Human Endogenous Retroviruses, which reactivation (normally silenced), can be induced by infectious agents during pregnancy, early childhood and/or adolescence. Neurotoxic effects and inflammatory state are induced, which might in turn and after a prodromal phase, trigger acute mood episodes. The present paper reviews the role of the immuno-inflammatory processes as key contributors to the bipolar disorders pathophysiology, the evidence supporting immuno-genetic predisposition, background, and the the possible implications of retroviruses reactivation in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder.

Bipolar disorder
Back to top