Instructions for Authors




  1. Manuscript Submission Overview
  2. Manuscript Preparation
  3. Supplementary Materials
  4. Original Images for Blots and Gels Requirements
  5. Research and Publication Ethics
  6. Authorship
  7. Copyright/Open Access
  8. Reviewer Recommendation
  9. Conflict of Interest
  10. Funded by the National Institute of Health (NIH)
  11. Editorial Process and Peer-Review
  12. Editorial Independence
  13. Process for in-House Submissions
  14. Promoting Equity, Diversity and Inclusiveness within FBE
  15. Special Issues & Supplements Policy
  16. Refund Policy



1. Manuscript Submission Overview

1.1 Types of Publications

Manuscripts submitted to Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) should neither be under consideration for publication in another journal nor previously published in another journal. The main article types considered for publication are:

  • Original Research: Reports of research on original works, includes Original Research, Short Communication, Rapid Report, Brief Report, etc. The journal considers all original research manuscripts provided that the work reports scientifically sound experiments and provides a substantial amount of new information. The Article includes full Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion and Conclusion sections. Complete research findings where aims/hypotheses are fully addressed. Authors should not unnecessarily divide their work into several related manuscripts, although Short Communications of preliminary, but significant, results will be considered. The quality and impact of the study will be considered during peer-review. Articles should follow but not limited to the following guidelines:


      • Randomised trials: CONSORT
      • Observational studies: STROBE
      • Qualitative research: SRQR
      • Diagnostic/prognostic studies: STARD
      • Animal pre-clinical studies: ARRIVE
      • Study protocols: SPIRIT
      • Clinical practice guidelines: AGREE


  • Review: This is a comprehensive overview of a specific hot topic aligned with addressing the aims and hypothesis through the literature. They are often written by leaders in a particular discipline. Reviews are often widely read (for example, by researchers looking for a full introduction to a field) and highly cited. Reviews commonly cite approximately 60 primary research articles.
  • Systematic Review: Systematic review is a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize findings qualitatively or quantitatively. Systematic reviews of RCTs should be based on PRISMA. For systematic reviews of observational studies MOOSE is recommended. Authors are recommended to complete the flow diagram and include it with their submission.
  • Editorial: Editorials are opinion articles from the editor or an invited author. When submitted by an invited contributor, editorials may introduce the subject being brought into focus in a special issue or thematic section. Editorials may comment on one or more articles in the same FBE issue or on an area of current interest in Bioscience. They should be brief and focused. Editorials should not exceed 1,000 words, 15 references, and 1 table or figure. Editorials may have a maximum of 3 authors. The body of the Editorial can be continuous text or divided into subsections. There is no abstract. Editorials on topics of current interest are welcome.


1.2 Accepted File Formats

Authors must use the Microsoft Word template available on our website to prepare their manuscript. If this requirement presents a problem, please contact the Editorial Office ( Accepted file formats are:

  • Microsoft Word: Manuscripts must be converted into a single file before submission. When preparing manuscripts in Microsoft Word, the FBE Microsoft Word template file must be used.
  • LaTeX: Manuscripts prepared in LaTeX must be collated into one ZIP folder (including all source files and images, so that the Editorial Office can recompile the submitted PDF).
  • Figures: Please save and submit figures as jpg. or tif. files (see below Link to 2.2.5 for further details).
  • Supplementary Materials: These materials may be in any format, but it is recommended that authors use common, non-proprietary formats where possible (see below Link to 3 for further details).


1.3 Submission Process

  • Manuscripts that are ready for submission should be scientifically sound and withoutsignificant errors in the formatting and language usage (including spelling, grammar, proper sentence flow, etc.).
  • Properly-formatted manuscripts should be submitted using the online submission & editorial system. Figures and Tables should be inserted into the main text close to their first citation and must be numbered following their number of appearance.
  • Manuscripts for FBE should be submitted online at online submission & editorial system. The submitting author, who is generally the corresponding author, is responsible for the manuscript during the submission and peer-review process. The submitting author must ensure that all eligible co-authors have been included in the author list and that they have all read and approved the submitted version of the manuscript. To submit your manuscript, register and log in to the submission website.
  • ORCID is an optional field which the submitting author can fill in. FBE uses ORCID to clearly link authors and reviewers—and all their name variants—with their research work, by embedding ORCID IDs into their publication metadata and displaying them on finished publications. Therefore, we recommend that the author complete this optional field.
  • When a manuscript is submitted, the corresponding author will receive a response within a few days regarding the suitability of the manuscript for publication in FBE. All manuscripts passed desk check will be sent to peer review, and the final acceptance/rejection depends on both reviewers and academic editor's decision.


2. Manuscript Preparation

2.1 General Guidelines

Read submission review Guidelines to Authors, view a properly formatted sample document ready for submission.

  2.1.1 Title Page

General information about an article and its authors is presented on a manuscript title page and usually includes the article title, author information, sources of support, word count, and sometimes the number of tables and figures.

Title. The title of your manuscript should be concise, specific and relevant. It should identify if the study reports (human or animal) trial data, or is a systematic review, meta-analysis or replication study. When gene or protein names are included, the abbreviated name rather than full name should be used.

Author information. Authors’ full first and last names must be provided. The initials of any middle names can be added. The PubMed/MEDLINE standard format is used for affiliations: complete address information including city, zip code, state/province, and country. Affiliations of the authors indicated by numbers (not symbols); equal contribution indicated by †. At least one author should be designated as corresponding author, and his or her email address and other details should be included at the end of the affiliation section. FBE encourages the listing of authors’ Open Researcher and Contributor Identification (ORCID).

Artificial intelligence (AI) policy. In accordance with COPE’s stated position on AI tools and ICMJE‘s authorship criteria, artificial intelligence chatbots, such as ChatGPT and similar AI tools based on large language models (LLMs), cannot be listed as an author of a paper. For more details about Artificial intelligence (AI) policy.

If the author(s) have used AI tools in drafting of the manuscript, production of images or graphical elements of the paper, or in the collection and analysis of data, the authors must be transparent concerning the use of AI tools. Furthermore, AI tool use must be disclosed both in cover letters to editors and in either the Methods or Acknowledgements section of the manuscript. Authors are fully responsible for the content of their manuscript, even those portions produced by an AI tool, and are thus liable for any breach of publication ethics. Final decisions concerning whether the use of an AI tool is appropriate, or permissible, in a submitted manuscript lies with the journals’ editors. Specifically, the Editor-in-Chief is responsible for decisions concerning regular journal submissions, the Guest Editor is responsible for Special Issue submissions, or an Editorial Board member may be appointed by the Editor-in-Chief to make such judgements in the case of a conflict of interest or for other circumstances.

Author contributions. The individual contributions of authors to the manuscript should be specified, and initials should be used to refer to each author’s contribution, e.g., GF, LH, and PG designed the research study, LH and PG performed the research, GF and MM provided help and advice on the ELISA experiments, MM analyzed the data. All authors contributed to editorial changes in the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. All authors have participated sufficiently in the work and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work.

IMR Press encourages the use of the roles defined in the Contributor Roles Taxonomy from CRediT(CRediT in no way changes the journal’s criteria to qualify for authorship). See more details about the criteria to qualify for authorship.

The individual contributions of authors to the manuscript should be specified, and initials should be used to refer to each author's contribution (e.g., GF, LH and PG designed the research study. LH and PG performed the research. GF and MM provided help and advice on the ELISA experiments. MM analyzed the data. All authors contributed to editorial changes in the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. All authors have participated sufficiently in the work and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work). If any changes to the list of authors of a manuscript are necessary after the initial submission but before publication, the corresponding author must contact the journal staff and provide a clear reason for the change.

If the change to the authorship list is appropriate and in keeping with the guidelines given above, the corresponding author will be asked to provide written confirmation that all other authors listed on the manuscript at that time give their consent. FBE will individually inform anyone who is added or removed from the author list.

Ethics approval and consent to participate. In this section, please add the Institutional Review Board Statement and approval number for studies involving humans or animals. Please note that the Editorial Office might ask you for further information.

Acknowledgment. In this section you can acknowledge any support given which is not covered by the author contribution or funding sections. This may include administrative and technical support, or donations in kind (e.g., materials used for experiments).

Funding. List funding sources. As this section contains important information and many funding bodies require inclusion of grant numbers here, please check carefully that manuscript details are accurate and use standard spelling of funding agency names at, as errors may affect your future funding.

Conflicts of interestThis section is required for all manuscripts. If there are no interests to declare, please use the following wording: “The authors declare there are no conflicts of interest” or “The author declares there are no conflicts of interest”. The text in this section should match the text provided in the Declaration of Interests form in the publishing agreement. In addition, the ICMJE has also developed a uniform Disclosure Form ( that FBE has adopted. See more about the Conflict of Interest policies.

Word count. A word count for the paper’s text, excluding its abstract, acknowledgments, tables, figure legends, and references, allows editors and reviewers to assess whether the information contained in the paper warrants the paper’s length, and whether the submitted manuscript fits within the journal’s formats and word limits. A separate word count for the abstract is useful for the same reason.

Specification of number of figures and tables. These numbers allow editorial staff and reviewers to confirm that all figures and tables were actually included with the manuscript.


The Abstract should not exceed 350 words. Abbreviations that appear once only, should be defined in full, unless they correspond to a gene name. If abbreviations appear more than once, the definition should be provided once, and then subsequently used throughout the abstract. Please do not cite references, figures or tables, website, equations or other graphical elements included.

Original research, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses require structured abstracts. The abstract must include the following separate sections:

  • Background: The context and purpose of the study.
  • Methods: How the study was performed, including thestudy design, setting and population (if applicable), main methodological approaches, and any statistical tests used.
  • Results: Succinct presentation of key results, including all pre-specifed primary outcomes; please include effect sizes, exact p-values, and sample sizes throughout.
  • Conclusions: Brief summary and potential implications.
  • Clinical Trial Registration: When applicable, include a fifth heading, “Clinical Trial Registration”. Please include the Unique Identifier and the URL of the publicly accessible website on which the trial is registered. If the data have been deposited in a public repository and/or are being used in a secondary analysis, authors should state at the end of the abstract the unique, persistent data set identifier; repository name; and number.



Immediately after the abstract, provide 3–10 keywords, using avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of').

  2.1.2 Main Text

  • Introduction

State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background to clarify why the study was undertaken and what hypotheses were tested, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. The information in this section should always be referenced and must discuss the literature.

  • Materials and Methods

The materials used and procedures conducted should be described with sufficient detail to allow others to replicate and build on published results. New methods and protocols should be described in detail while well-established methods can be briefly described and appropriately cited. Methods that have been published in detail elsewhere should not be described in detail and avoid unnecessary detailed descriptions of widely used techniques. SI Units should be used throughout the text. Reports of experiments involving patients and healthy volunteers must describe the steps taken to obtain consent and to maintain confidentiality. Experiments involving animals must conform to accepted ethical standards.

Statistical analyses should provide the name of the statistical test used, the number for each analysis, the comparisons of interest, the alpha level and the actual p-value for each test. It should be clear which statistical test was used to generate every p-value. Error bars on graphs should be clearly labeled, and it should be stated whether the number following the ± sign is a standard deviation or a standard error. The word ‘significant’ should only be used when referring to statistically significant results and should be accompanied by the relevant p-value. Significance indicators should be used on graphs and tables, and should be described in the figure or table legend, clearly indicating which groups are being compared. Describe any statistical software used to perform analyses.

  • Results

Include a concise summary of the data presented in all display items (figures and tables). Excessive elaboration of data shown in display items should be avoided. Numerical data should be analyzed using appropriate statistical tests described in the Experimental Design and Statistical Analysis section. Authors must provide detailed information for each statistical test applied. If some references are needed to support the results they can be inserted in the Discussion section.

Reproducibility of Results and Statistical Analysis:

Submission of data for publication is an indication that the authors are confident of data reproducibility. Appropriate statistical analysis should be used to determine that the findings are significant. The term "significant" should be used only if such determination has been made. The probability of the significance should be stated. When reporting a new assay, the following data should be listed:

      • Within-assay variability
      • Between-assay variability
      • Slope of the dose-response curve
      • Mid-range of assay
      • Sensitivity. Least detectable concentration
      • Specificity
      • Parallelism of the standard and the unknown on recovery
      • Comparison with another method for the detection of the compound


  • Discussion

This section should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and an overly discussion of published literature.

  • Conclusions

This section is mandatory for all the submission.

  2.1.3 Cover Letter

Summarize briefly the important points of the submitted work including a brief description of the study to be submitted, that it is an original study presenting novel work, that it has not been previously submitted to or accepted by any other journal, that is has been approved by all authors, that ethics approval and written informed consent have been obtained, and explain whether any author has a conflict of interest.

2.2 Format of Manuscript

  2.2.1 General Formatting Guidelines

  • Format, revise, and correct the manuscript and save it as a MS Word document (not as a text or any other type of file). It is important that manuscripts should be written in clear, concise English and should be submitted free of grammar, spelling or scientific errors. Subsequent to submission of the manuscript, please do not send any other revised form of the same document. Such documents will not be used.
  • If you are including text, tables or figures that were previously published, please obtain the permission of the publisher. By simply calling or writing to the publisher, you can easily obtain such permissions.
  • If you are referring to previously published text, figure or table, please add the following comment to text, the figure or table legend "Reproduced with permission from, (ref #)".
  • All terms such as et al, in situ, in vitro, in vivo, etc. should be italicized.
  • Please do not use automatic numbering in table of contents, titles, subtitles or references. The numbering used by Word is proprietary and does not allow conversion to HTML documents. Please remove automatic numbering and manually number numbered items in text.
  • All supplementary materials (where applicable) should be submitted through online submission & editorial system as separated files. All supplementary figures and tables must be referred to by sequential numbers in text.
  • Do not include footnotes throughout the text. All footnotes must be included at the end of the references and referred to sequentially by superscripted numbers both in text and in footnotes.
  • All files must be scanned for viruses prior to submission.
  • Page Layout: General.
  • Times New Roman. Font size 10.5. 1.2 line spacing. Alignment Justified.
  • The first line indents 2 characters of a new paragraph.
  • Sub-headings and general headings should be presented in upper case letters (capitalize the initials of all substantives).
  • Use either British English or American English spelling throughout your manuscript, but not both.
  • Do not use page breaks in your manuscript.
  • Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading.
  • Figure Legends (do not place the reference to figure legends in table of contents).
  • Tables (do not place the references to tables in table of contents).



  • Place a hard return after each paragraph.
  • Please cite references throughout the text in sequential numbers and place references inside square brackets at the end of sentences throughout the text.


  2.2.2 References

  • The reference list should besorted numerically. The reference list should be limited to only those citations essential to the presentation.
  • Please verify the accuracy of all references and check that all references have been cited in the text.
  • Please list all authors’ namesin the reference if the authors number fewer than six. For more than six authors, please list the first six authors’ names, then use “et al.”.
  • Please list the standard journal title, do not omitabbreviate the page number.
  • Use [number] for references in the text.

Sample reference citation (Download EndNote style).

(1) Journal:

① Less than 6 authors

[1] Boyden EA. A critique of the international nomenclature on bronchopulmonary segments. Diseases of the Chest. 1953; 23: 266–269.

② More than 6 authors

[2] Truong M, Dreier T, Wassélius J, Sundius L, Persson A, Lovric G, et al. Sub-micrometer morphology of human atherosclerotic plaque revealed by synchrotron radiation-based μCT-A comparison with histology. PLoS One. 2022; 17: e0265598.

(2) Book:

[1] Dybvig DD, Dybvig M. Det tenkende mennesket: filosofiog vitenskapshistorie med vitenskapsteori. 2nd edn. Tapir akademisk forlag: Trondheim. 2003.

[2] Lang TA, Secic M. How to report statistics in medicine. American College of Physicians: Philadelphia. 1997.

(3) Patent:

[1] Cho ST, inventor; Hospira, Inc., assignee. Microneedles for minimally invasive drug delivery. USA: United States patent US 6,980,855. 27 December 2005.

(4) If there are non-English journals in the reference, please insert the journal language as the ending:

[1] Zhou Y, Liu M, Liang WN. Progress on the epidemiological study of epilepsy. Zhong Hua Journal. 2007; 28: 92–94. (In Chinese)

(5) Website:

[1] Fugelsnes E. Oppvarmet støv kan gi økte helseplager. 2004. Available at: (Accessed: 1 April 2004). 

  2.2.3 Abbreviations

  • Naming of chemicals should follow that outlined in Chemical Abstracts Service.
  • Use standard abbreviations where possible. Use the generic name of any drug unless making claims about a specific brand or formulation.
  • New abbreviations must be defined at first usage within the manuscript.


  2.2.4 Tables

  • All tables should be inserted into the main text close to their first citation and must be numbered following their order of appearance (Table 1, Table 2, etc.).
  • Do not submit tables in any other format such as an image, Excel file, PDF file, etc.
  • Each table must be a real table with columns, rows and cells.
  • Do not use tab to create tables.
  • Each piece of information should reside in its own cell.
  • Tables must be numbered sequentially in the text and in the table title.
  • Do not use any numbering style other than 1, 2, etc.
  • Each table should have a short title. Any other text should be included at the bottom of the table and not in the table title.
  • Please refer to any notation within the table with sequential superscripted numbers and not by any other attribute such as a, #, etc.
  • Please cite references in the right column by numbers referenced in the reference section. Do not use the name of author followed by et al.
  • If possible, please do not use abbreviations in tables.
  • If abbreviations are used, please list them below the table such as IFN: interferon.


  2.2.5 Figures

Figure File Requirements

  • File type: .tif, .jpg.
  • Image resolution: Figures should be submitted at a high resolution ① Line Art 800 dpi, ② Combo (Line Art + Halftone) 600 dpi, ③ Halftone 300 dpi. We do not accept 72 dpi web-quality graphics (usually jpg or gif format) in which the colors are not realistic, the text is illegible, or where the images are pixelated. It is important to stress that the objective is to obtain the highest quality images available.
  • Color space: RGB (not CMYK).
  • Alpha channels: None.
  • Letters, numbers, and symbols on figures should be clear and consistent throughout, and large enough. Font used within the figure should be between 8 and 10 points for legibility. Label units of measure consistently with the text and legend, following AMA Style for unit abbreviations.
  • Solid lines should not be broken up. Any lines in the graphic should be no smaller than 2 points wide.
  • Do not include trial logos in figures.
  • Figures should be prepared with the PDF layout in mind. Individual figures should not be longer than one page and with a width that corresponds to 1 column (85 mm) or 2 columns (180 mm).
  • All figures should be inserted into the main text close to their first citation and must be numbered following their order of appearance (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, etc.). In addition, file for figures can be provided during submission in a separate file.
  • Encourage to follow the guideline of WCAG:
  • Photomicrographs and clinical and diagnostic images requirements:

Photomicrographs should have internal scale markers. Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background. Explain the internal scale and identify the method of staining in photomicrographs.

For radiological and other clinical and diagnostic images, as well as pictures of pathology specimens or photomicrographs, send high-resolution photographic image files. Before-and-after images should be taken with the same intensity, direction, and color of light.

  • Original images for blots and gels requirements:

Authors must provide the original, uncropped and unadjusted images supporting all blot and gel results reported in an article’s figures and supporting information files.

Please create a zip folder that contains all the original blot and gel images contained in the manuscript’s main figures and supplemental figures. Authors should annotate each original image, corresponding to the figure in the main article or supplementary materials, and label each lane or loading order.

All labeling and annotation should be performed without obscuring any data or background bands. All experimental samples and controls used for one comparative analysis should be run on the same blot/gel image. The different images should not be spliced together to illustrate the results.


Figure Label & Panel Label

  • Use the figure label with the format: Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3, etc.
  • Use the panel label with the format: (A), (B–D), (a), (a,b), etc.
  • Figure legends begin with the term Fig. in bold type, followed by the figure number, also in bold type.
  • Figure parts should be clearly labeled. Letters and labels must be uniform in size and style within each figure and, when possible, between figures.
  • Limit white space between figure panels and within each panel.
  • Authors are strongly encouraged to limit the number of panels per figure to 6.


Figure Legends

  • Provide a short title (in the legend, not on the figure itself) and an explanation in brief but sufficient detail to make the figure intelligible without reference to the text (unless a similar explanation has been given in another figure).
  • Statistical tests used should be described in each figure legend.
  • All symbols used (arrows, circles, etc.) must be explained.
  • All abbreviations used in the figure should be identified at the end of each legend.
  • If previously published figures are used, written permission from the original publisher (or copyright holder, if not the publisher) is required.
  • If the figure has been previously published, cite the figure source in the legend.


In-text Citations

  • Cite figures with the format: Fig. 1A, Fig. 1B, Fig. 2, Fig. 3, etc.
  • Cite figures in ascending numeric order upon first appearance in the manuscript file. In the published article, figures are inserted according to the placement of their first citation and caption in the article.
  • Lettered subparts of whole figures may be cited in any order in the text if the first mention of each whole figure is in numerical order. For example, you can cite any subpart of Fig. 3 in any order (e.g., Fig. 3C before Fig. 3A), as long as Figs. 1 and 2 have already been cited.
  • If an appendix appears in your article and it contains one or more figures, continue the consecutive numbering of the main text. Appendix materials should be cited as “Appendix Fig. 1, Appendix Table 1, etc.” Do not number the appendix figures, “A1, A2, A3, etc.”
  • Supplementary materials should be cited as “Supplementary Fig. 1, Supplementary Table 1, etc.”


If you have any questions or are experiencing a problem with figures, please contact:

   2.2.6 Label Styles, Units and Symbols

Labels must be prepared according to our in‐house style, be phrased in accordance to the manuscript, and free of spelling and other language errors.

*: Correspondence.

†: These authors contributed equally.

§: The author's own special request.

The SI system of units is preferred. For detailed advice please refer to the guidelines in Baron DN, Clark HM. Units, Symbols, and Abbreviations: A Guide for Authors and Editors in Medicine and Related Sciences,, 6th edn (2008). CRC Press, ISBN 9781853156243. 


  • Always use a leading zero (0) before decimal points: 0.5 NOT .5.
  • Decimal points must use a full stop/period (.) NOT a comma (,).
  • A space must be inserted before measurement units: 132 bp NOT 132bp, 5 mm NOT 5mm, 1 h NOT 1h.


3. Supplementary Materials

Additional data and files can be uploaded as "Supplementary Files" during the manuscript submission process. The supplementary files will also be available to the referees as part of the peer-review process. Any file format is acceptable, however, we recommend that common, non-proprietary formats are used where possible.


4. Original Images for Blots and Gels Requirements

In order to ensure the integrity and scientific validity of blotting techniques (including, but not limited to, western blots) and gel data reporting, original, uncropped, and unadjusted images should be uploaded as Supporting Information files at time of initial manuscript submission.

A single PDF file or a zip folder containing all the original images reported in the main figure and supplemental figures is suggested. Authors should annotate each original image, corresponding to the figure in the main article or supplementary materials, and label each lane or loading order. All experimental samples and controls used for one comparative analysis should be run on the same blot/gel image. Different images should not be spliced together to illustrate the results.


5. Research and Publication Ethics

5.1 Research Ethics

If your research includes human, animal subjects or cell lines, you will need to include the appropriate ethics declarations in the Methods section of your manuscript. More details.

5.2 Publication Ethics Statement

FBE follows the guidelines of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals.

Publication of a scientific article represents the means through which the contribution of the scientists is recognized. Along with this recognition, the authors of a scientific article bear the responsibility to make certain that their contribution is original, reproducible, and clearly and honestly represented. It is not always possible to detect erroneous nature of a set of data during the peer-review process. Therefore, it is vital that all authors carefully review the accuracy of the data that they present.

Authors of the manuscript are obligated to:

  • Refrain from plagiarism (total or partial submission of the work of others).
  • Refrain from fabricating (falsifying) data.
  • Refrain from dishonesty (altering or suppressing information).
  • Refrain from submitting information previously published or under consideration for publication in another journal.
  • Describe the work accurately.
  • Provide the details necessary for the duplication of the data by other investigators.
  • Include all the data even if they do not support a given hypothesis.
  • Cite all the relevant contribution of other investigators and references that allow interpretation of the results.
  • Include the source of all materials used.
  • Make available all products that they generate such as protein, DNA, clone, cell or other types of material that they describe to other investigators. This should be done with the spirit that the data that are published can be duplicated and that other ideas can be tested.
  • Abide by the rules set in the Declaration of Helsinki and Recommendation for Conduct of Clinical Research.
  • Use laboratory animals for the research according to the rules and regulations of NIH and their institution.
  • Use recombinant DNA for the research according to the rules and regulations of NIH and the institution.
  • If errors and inaccuracies are found by the authors after publication of their paper, these issues need to be promptly communicated to the editors of this journal so that appropriate actions can be taken. Please refer to our policy regarding publication of publishing addenda and corrections.

For more information, please see Publishing Ethics and Research Ethics and Informed Consent.

5.3 Neutrality

Potential disputes over borders and territories may have particular relevance for authors in describing their research or in an author or editor correspondence address, and such issues should be respected. Content decisions are an editorial matter and where there is a potential or perceived dispute or complaint, the editorial team will attempt to come to a resolution that satisfies all parties involved.

FBE stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

5.4 Citation

Research articles and non-research articles (e.g., Opinion, Review, and Commentary articles) must cite appropriate and relevant literature in support of the claims made, see more guidelines about Citation


6. Authorship

According to the ICMJE guidelines, to qualify as an author a contributor should meet each of these four criteria: they have (i) made substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; and (ii) been involved in drafting the manuscript or reviewing it critically for important intellectual content; and (iii) given final approval of the version to be published. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content; and (iv) agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not usually warrant authorship.

The individual contributions of authors to the manuscript should be specified, and initials should be used to refer to each author’s contribution. If any changes to the list of authors of a manuscript are necessary after the initial submission but before publication, the corresponding author must contact the journal staff and provide a clear reason for the change.

FBE will individually inform anyone who is added or removed from the author list.

See more details about authorship.


7. Copyright/Open Access

Starting from 2021, all FBE's content is available online, and is fully browsable and searchable. All FBE papers are published as Open Access articles under the unrestrictive CC-BY license. The copyright is retained by the author(s).

IMR Press will insert the following note in the footer of the first page of the published text:

© Year The Author(s). Published by IMR Press. This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.


8. Reviewer Recommendation

Authors can recommend two peers who could potentially be called upon to review the submitted manuscript. Recommended reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Please be aware of any conflicts of interest when recommending reviewers. Examples of conflicts of interest include (but are not limited to):

  • The reviewer having prior knowledge of your submission.
  • The reviewer has recently collaborated with any of the authors.
  • Nominees from the same institution as any of the authors are not permitted.
  • Please nominate peers who you do not wish to review your manuscript (i.e., opposed reviewers).

Please note that the Editors are not obliged to invite/reject any recommended/opposed reviewers to assess your manuscript.

Journal editors will check to make sure there are no conflicts of interest before contacting reviewers, and will not consider those with competing interests. Reviewers are asked to declare any conflicts of interest. The editorial team will respect opposed reviewer requests as long as this does not interfere with the objective and thorough assessment of the submission.


9. Conflict of Interest

Authors, reviewers, and editors must declare whether there are any potential conflicts of interest (COIs) regarding the publication and handling of a study. Authors will declare their conflicts of interest in every published article and the name of Academic Editors who make the final decision will appear in published articles. The editors and peer reviewers should declare their COIs to the Editorial Office. See more Conflicts of Interest for further information.


10. Funded by the National Institute of Health (NIH)

National Institute of Health (NIH) requires all manuscripts accepted for publication on or after April 7, 2008 which report research, that is funded in whole or in part by the NIH, to be submitted into PubMed Central (PMC). If you are funded by NIH, we are happy to assist you in depositing the author's published version of your article in the repository PubMed Central.


11. Editorial Process and Peer-Review

IMR operates rigorous and transparent peer-review and editorial processes that aim to maximize quality. Peer review is handled by researchers and scholars. For more details, see our Editorial Policies.


12. Editorial Independence

FBE is consistent with the principles of editorial independence presented by the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME). For more details, see our Editorial Policies.


13. Process for in-House Submissions

FBE requires that editorial staff or editors not be involved in processing their own academic work.

A conflict-of-interest section is required for all manuscripts. If there are no interests to declare for a Guest Editor’s manuscript, please use the following wording: “Given their role as [Guest] Editor [in Chief], <NAME of Editor> had no involvement in the peer-review of this article and has no access to information regarding its peer-review. Full responsibility for the editorial process for this article was delegated to <NAME of delegated editor>”. See more details about Process for in-House Submissions.


14. Promoting Equity, Diversity and Inclusiveness within FBE

Our Managing Editors encourage the Editors-in-Chief and Associate Editors to appoint diverse and expert Editorial Boards. We are proud to create equal opportunities without regard to gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, age, religion, or socio-economic status. There is no place for discrimination in our workplace, and editors of FBE are to uphold these principles in high regard.


15. Special Issues & Supplements Policy

We publish Special Issues/Supplements in accordance with Supplements, Theme Issues, and Special Series guidelines from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) and Conflict of Interest Disclosure and Journal Supplements in MEDLINE by the US National Library of Medicine. For more details, see our Special Issues & Supplements Policy.


16. Refund Policy

Article Processing Charges are required after a manuscript has been accepted for publication. The journal will not issue refunds of any kind after the acceptance of the manuscript.


Updated on 18 October 2023

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