IMR Press / RCM / Volume 22 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2203099
Open Access Original Research
Serum endothelin-1 level positively correlates with waist and hip circumferences in stable coronary artery disease patients
Show Less
1 Department of Cardiology and Vascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada – Dr. Sardjito Hospital, 55281 Yogyakarta, Indonesia
2 Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing - Biobank Development Team, Universitas Gadjah Mada, 55281 Yogyakarta, Indonesia
3 Department of Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada – Dr. Sardjito Hospital, 55281 Yogyakarta, Indonesia
4 Department of Health Behavior, Environment and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing-Sleman Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Universitas Gadjah Mada, 55281 Yogyakarta, Indonesia
*Correspondence: (Anggoro Budi Hartopo)
Academic Editor: Matina Kouvari
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2021, 22(3), 919–924;
Submitted: 9 February 2021 | Revised: 23 April 2021 | Accepted: 23 June 2021 | Published: 24 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, nutrients and cardiovascular disease prevention)
Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license (

Central obesity is associated with increased level and activity of endothelin-1. The waist and hip circumferences are simple indicators of central obesity. Waist circumference correlates with visceral adiposity, whereas hip circumference associates with gluteofemoral peripheral adiposity. Both measurements have independent and opposite correlation with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. The relation between serum endothelin-1 in stable CAD and both parameters of central obesityneeds to be investigated. This study aims to examine the correlation between serum endothelin-1 level and waist and hip circumferences as parameters of central obesity in patients with stable CAD. This was a cross-sectional study. Consecutive subjects were enrolled among those who underwent elective coronary angiography with significant CAD. Serum endothelin-1 was measured from peripheral blood samples taken before coronary angiography procedure. The measurement of waist circumference, hip circumference, and ratio derived from them, was performed. Central obesity was determined by waist circumference cut-off for Indonesian population. The correlation analysis was performed with Pearson test. The multivariate analysis was performed with multiple linear regression test. The comparison of serum endothelin-1 level between groups was performed with Student T test. We enrolled 50 subjects. The majority of subjects was male (80.0%), hypertensive (86.0%), dyslipidemic (68%) and smoker (52%). Most subjects had history of acute coronary syndrome (64%). Mean waist circumference was 87.6 +/– SD cm, hip circumference was 95.3 cm +/– SD, mean waist-to-hip ratio was 0.92 +/– SD and mean waist-to-height ratio was 0.54 +/– SD. Central obesity occurred in 32% of subjects. Mean serum endothelin-1 level was 2.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL. Serum endothelin-1 level tended to be higher in subjects with central obesity as compared to those without. Serum endothelin-1 level was significantly correlated with age, hemoglobin level, waist circumference (coefficient of 0.311, p value = 0.023) and hip circumference (coefficient of 0.359, p value = 0.010). Multivariable analysis indicated that age (coefficient of –0.353, p value = 0.007) and hip circumference (coefficient of 0.335, p value = 0.011) were independently correlated with serum endothelin-1. For conclusion, in patients with stable CAD, serum endothelin-1 was positively correlated with both waist circumference and hip circumference. Hip circumference independently and positively correlated with serum endothelin-1 level.

Central obesity
Waist circumference
Hip circumference
Stable coronary artery disease
Fig. 1.
Back to top