IMR Press / RCM / Volume 22 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2203100
Open Access Original Research
Clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure with and without cirrhosis: an analysis from the national inpatient sample
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1 Department of Emergency and Hospital Medicine, Lehigh Valley Hospital-Cedar Crest, Allentown, PA 18103, USA
2 Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33602, USA
3 Department of Medicine, Lincoln Medical Center, New York, NY 10451, USA
4 Department of Medicine, Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19141, USA
5 Division of Nephrology, Columbia VA Health Care System, Columbia, SC 29209, USA
Academic Editor: Peter A. McCullough
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2021, 22(3), 925–929; https://doi.org/10.31083/j.rcm2203100
Submitted: 24 May 2021 | Revised: 22 June 2021 | Accepted: 24 June 2021 | Published: 24 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Cardiovascular Medicine 2021)
Abstract

Outcomes of heart failure (HF) hospitalization are driven by the presence or absence of comorbid conditions. Cirrhosis is associated with worse outcomes in patients with HF, and both HF and cirrhosis are associated with worse renal outcomes. Using a nationally representative sample we describe inpatient outcomes of all-cause mortality and length of stay (LOS) among patients with and without cirrhosis hospitalized for decompensated with HF. We conducted a cross sectional analysis using Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2010–2014) data including patients hospitalized for decompensated HF, with or without cirrhosis. We calculated the adjusted odds of all-cause mortality, acute kidney injury (AKI), and target LOS after adjusting for potential confounders. Out of the 2,487,445 hospitalized for decompensated HF 39,950 had cirrhosis of which majority (75.1%) were non-alcoholic cirrhosis. Patients with comorbid cirrhosis were more likely to die (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.43) and develop AKI (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.36) as compared to those without cirrhosis. Underlying CKD was associated with a greater odds of AKI (OR, 4.99; 95% CI, 4.90 to 5.08), and the presence of cirrhosis amplified this risk (OR, 6.03; 95% CI, 5.59 to 6.51). There was approximately a 40% decrease in the relative odds of lower HF hospitalization length of stay among those with both CKD and cirrhosis, relative to those without either comorbidities. Cirrhosis in patients with hospitalizations for decompensated HF is associated with higher odds of mortality, decreased likelihood of discharge by the targeted LOS, and AKI. Among patients with HF the presence of cirrhosis increases the risk of AKI, which in turn is associated with poor clinical outcomes.

Keywords
Hepatorenal
Cardiorenal
Hepatocardiorenal
Heart Failure
Cirrhosis
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