Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare systemic autoimmune disease of unknown etiology, which is characterized by endothelial dysfunction, pathologic vasculopathy, and increased tissue fibrosis. Traditionally, SSc has been regarded as a prototypical fibrotic disease in the family of systemic autoimmune diseases. Traditionally, emphasis has been placed on the three components of the pathogenesis of SSc: vascular, immune, and mesenchymal. Microvascular lesions, including endothelial dysfunction and smooth muscle cell migration into the intima of vessels in SSc, resemble the atherosclerotic process. Although microvascular disease is a hallmark of SSc, understanding the role of atherosclerotic vascular lesions in patients with SSc remains limited. It is still unknown whether the increased cardiovascular risk in SSc is related to specific cardiac complications (such as myocardial fibrosis) or the accelerated development of atherosclerosis. Different immune cell types appear to be involved in the immunopathogenesis of SSc via the activation of other immune cells, fibrosis, or vascular damage. Macrophages, B cells, T cells, dendritic cells, neutrophils, and endothelial cells have been reported to play the most important role in the pathogenesis of SSc and atherosclerosis. In our article, we reviewed the most significant and recent studies on the pathogenetic links between the development of SSc and the atherosclerotic process.