IMR Press / FBS / Volume 15 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.31083/j.fbs1504016
Open Access Review
Systemic Sclerosis and Atherosclerosis: Potential Cellular Biomarkers and Mechanisms
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1 Department of Systemic Rheumatic Diseases, V.A. Nasonova Research Institute of Rheumatology, 115522 Moscow, Russian Federation
2 Department of Organization and Economics of Pharmacy, Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation (Sechenov University), 119991 Moscow, Russian Federation
*Correspondence: (Elena V. Gerasimova)
Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2023, 15(4), 16;
Submitted: 22 October 2023 | Revised: 29 November 2023 | Accepted: 12 December 2023 | Published: 26 December 2023
Copyright: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare systemic autoimmune disease of unknown etiology, which is characterized by endothelial dysfunction, pathologic vasculopathy, and increased tissue fibrosis. Traditionally, SSc has been regarded as a prototypical fibrotic disease in the family of systemic autoimmune diseases. Traditionally, emphasis has been placed on the three components of the pathogenesis of SSc: vascular, immune, and mesenchymal. Microvascular lesions, including endothelial dysfunction and smooth muscle cell migration into the intima of vessels in SSc, resemble the atherosclerotic process. Although microvascular disease is a hallmark of SSc, understanding the role of atherosclerotic vascular lesions in patients with SSc remains limited. It is still unknown whether the increased cardiovascular risk in SSc is related to specific cardiac complications (such as myocardial fibrosis) or the accelerated development of atherosclerosis. Different immune cell types appear to be involved in the immunopathogenesis of SSc via the activation of other immune cells, fibrosis, or vascular damage. Macrophages, B cells, T cells, dendritic cells, neutrophils, and endothelial cells have been reported to play the most important role in the pathogenesis of SSc and atherosclerosis. In our article, we reviewed the most significant and recent studies on the pathogenetic links between the development of SSc and the atherosclerotic process.

systemic sclerosis
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22-25-00358/Russian Science Foundation
Fig. 1.
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