IMR Press / FBL / Volume 26 / Issue 10 / DOI: 10.52586/4999
Open Access Review
Potential roles of mesenchymal stem cells and their exosomes in the treatment of COVID-19
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1 Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, 410008 Changsha, Hunan, China
2 Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, 410008 Changsha, Hunan, China
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2021, 26(10), 948–961; https://doi.org/10.52586/4999
Submitted: 6 June 2021 | Revised: 17 August 2021 | Accepted: 1 September 2021 | Published: 30 October 2021
Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by BRI.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Abstract

Background: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The primary pathogenesis is over-activation of the immune system. SARS-CoV-2 continues to mutate and spread rapidly and no effective treatment options are yet available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to induce anti-inflammatory macrophages, regulatory T cells and dendritic cells. There are a rapidly increasing number of clinical investigations of cell-based therapy approaches for COVID-19. Objective: To summarize the pathogenic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2, and systematically formulated the immunomodulation of COVID-19 by MSCs and their exosomes, as well as research progress. Method: Searching PubMed, clinicaltrials.gov and Chictr.cn for eligible studies to be published or registered by May 2021. Main keywords and search strategies were as follows: ((Mesenchymal stem cells) OR (MSCs)) AND (COVID-19). Results: MSCs regulate the immune system to prevent cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and to promote endogenous repair by releasing various paracrine factors and exosomes. Conclusions: MSC therapy is thus a promising candidate for COVID-19.

Keywords
COVID-19
SARS-CoV-2
Mesenchymal stem cell
Exosome
Immunoregulation
Figures
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