Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease: Is there sufficient evidence for mechanism-based interventional therapy?
Academic Editor: Santosh R. D Mello
The inflammatory response in the brain associated with most chronic neurodegenerative diseases is termed neuroinflammation. Neuropathological and neuroradiological studies indicate that in certain neurodegenerative disorders neuroinflammation may be detectable years before significant loss of neurons occurs. In this review, we discuss the evidence from human studies and experimental models that implicate neuroinflammatory processes in the progressive neurodegeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway, the hallmark of Parkinson's Disease (PD). We discuss the neurotoxic role of microglia-derived inflammatory mediators which are suspected to hasten the death of nigral dopaminergic neurons, in particular the pro-inflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) and its downstream signaling pathways. We also entertain the possibility that chronic microglia activation links proteinopathies to neurodegeneration. The rationale for current and future use of anti-inflammatory approaches to protect vulnerable neuronal populations in PD is also reviewed.