Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Carcinoma of the pancreas is extremely common, with a five-year mortality rate of about 95-99%. Radical surgery requires good technical skill and can cause complications and operative mortality, but should be avoided in patients with extrapancreatic involvement. Advances in dynamic spiral CT-scan have decreased the number of unnecessary laparotomies. VLS is indicated in cases of pancreatic mass deemed resectable or "doubtful" by CT-scan. Direct laparoscopic visualization can be combined with intraoperative laparoscopic ultrasonography (LUS), which has shown a positive predictive value of resectability of 91%. Laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy (LPD) shows a high rate of complications and should be performed by very well-trained surgeons. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) with an "en bloc" splenectomy and spleen preservation should be performed.