Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Although securin/separase/cohesion pathway was reported to regulate chromosome segregation during meiotic metaphase-to-anaphase transition, little biochemical evidence was provided. We recently found that oocytes could not progress beyond meiotic metaphase when ubiquitin-proteasome pathway was inhibited, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the quantity of securin and Rec8 protein and the localization of securin, a cohesion subunit, during oocyte meiosis providing data in support of the hypothesis that the effect of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway on metaphase-to-anaphase transition was mediated by regulating securin and Rec8 degradation in mouse and pig oocytes. In germinal vesicle-stage oocytes, immunostaining of securin was mainly localized in the germinal vesicle. Shortly after germinal vesicle breakdown, immunoreactive securin accumulated around the condensed chromosomes at prometaphase I. At metaphase I and metaphase II, when chromosomes were organized at the equatorial plate, immunoreactive securin was concentrated around the aligned chromosomes, putatively associated with the position of the metaphase spindle. The accumulation of securin could not be detected at anaphase I and anaphase II. In both mouse and pig oocytes, Western blot analysis showed that securin protein was low at germinal vesicle stage, reached the highest level at metaphase I, while decreased at anaphase I. Securin was increased again at metaphase II, while it was decreased at anaphase II. Rec8 protein was present in germinal vesicle-stage oocytes and remained until metaphase I, while it was decreased at anaphase I. Like securin, Rec8 was increased at metaphase II, while it was decreased again at anaphase II. The inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway inhibited the decrease in securin and Rec8 at metaphase-to-anaphase transitions in both mouse and pig oocytes. Microinjection of securin antibody into MII-arrested oocytes leads to the degradation of Rec8. In conclusion, these results suggest that the proteolysis of securin is dependent on ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and is necessary for the degradation of Rec8 during meiotic metaphase-to-anaphase transitions in mouse and pig oocytes.