IMR Press / FBE / Volume 8 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.2741/E770

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

Amino acids in healthy aging skeletal muscle

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1 Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, 109 Savage Hall, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Guoyao Wu

Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2016, 8(2), 326–350; https://doi.org/10.2741/E770
Published: 1 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amino acids in nutrition, health, and disease)
Abstract

Life expectancy in the U.S. and globally continues to increase. Despite increased life expectancy quality of life is not enhanced, and older adults often experience chronic age-related disease and functional disability, including frailty. Additionally, changes in body composition such as the involuntary loss of skeletal muscle mass (i.e. sarcopenia) and subsequent increases in adipose tissue can augment disease and disability in this population. Furthermore, increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant concentrations may also lead to metabolic dysfunction in older adults. Specific amino acids, including leucine, cysteine and its derivative taurine, and arginine can play various roles in healthy aging, especially in regards to skeletal muscle health. Leucine and arginine play important roles in muscle protein synthesis and cell growth while cysteine and arginine play important roles in quenching oxidative stress. Evidence suggests that supplemental doses of each of these amino acids may improve the aging phenotype. However, additional research is required to establish the doses required to achieve positive outcomes in humans.

Keywords
Leucine
Cysteine
Taurine
Arginine
Skeletal Muscle
Review
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