IMR Press / FBE / Volume 4 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.2741/e405

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

The immunomodulating roles of glycoproteins in epithelial ovarian cancer

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1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI-53792-6188
2 Department of Biology, Augustana College, Sioux Falls SD

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Hafiz Ahmed

Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2012, 4(2), 631–650; https://doi.org/10.2741/e405
Published: 1 January 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glycobiology of cancer)
Abstract

The complexity of the immune system demands an intricate defense mechanism by tumors. Ovarian and other tumors employ specific glycoproteins and the associated glycan sequences to modulate immune responses. Glycoproteins enable tumor cells that express or secrete these molecules to evade immune cell attack and induce the immune system to promote tumor growth. This review focuses first on the immune environment in ovarian cancer, and the mechanisms of activation and inhibition that immune cells undergo in order to either attack or ignore a target cell. Next we illustrate the immunomodulatory roles of ovarian cancer-associated glycans and glycoproteins in 1. preventing immune synapse formation, 2. serving as ligands of immune cell receptors, 3. scavenging cytokines and chemokines, and 4. participating in the formation of autoantibodies against the tumor. The importance of these immunomodulating strategies from the view points of understanding the tumor immunology of ovarian tumors, potential origin of such mechanisms, and specific strategies to circumvent the glycoconjugate-mediated suppression of immune responses is discussed in this review.

Keywords
Glycoproteins
T cells
NK cells
Epithelia Ovarian Cancer
MUC16
Glycodelin
MUC1
Mucins
Immune Synapse
Review
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