Wheat (Triticum spp and, particularly, T. aestivum L.) is an essential cereal with increased human and animal nutritional demand. Therefore, there is a need to enhance wheat yield and genetic gain using modern breeding technologies alongside proven methods to achieve the necessary increases in productivity. These modern technologies will allow breeders to develop improved wheat cultivars more quickly and efficiently. This review aims to highlight the emerging technological trends used worldwide in wheat breeding, with a focus on enhancing wheat yield. The key technologies for introducing variation (hybridization among the species, synthetic wheat, and hybridization; genetically modified wheat; transgenic and gene-edited), inbreeding (double haploid (DH) and speed breeding (SB)), selection and evaluation (marker-assisted selection (MAS), genomic selection (GS), and machine learning (ML)) and hybrid wheat are discussed to highlight the current opportunities in wheat breeding and for the development of future wheat cultivars.