IMR Press / FBL / Volume 25 / Issue 6 / DOI: 10.2741/4845

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review
A perspective on challenges and opportunities in characterizing oral cancer stem cells
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1 DeepSeeq Bioinformatics, Ananthapura, Yelahanka, Bangalore 560 064 India
2 Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine (inStem), UAS-GKVK campus, Yelahanka, Bangalore 560 065 India
Send correspondence to: Subhashini Sadasivam, DeepSeeq Bioinformatics, Ananthapura, Yelahanka, Bangalore 560064, India, Tel: 919945386181, E-mail: subhashini.sadasivam@gmail.com
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2020, 25(6), 1011–1021; https://doi.org/10.2741/4845
Published: 1 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Elucidation of exosomes role in metastasis)
Abstract

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells (TICs) represent a minority population of cells in a tumor that can self-renew and re-create the heterogeneity of the entire tumor. Cell lines, patient-derived tumor cells, and patient-derived xenografts have all been used to isolate presumptive CSC populations from different tumor types. Because of their purported roles in tumor recurrence and prognosis, numerous efforts have centered around reliably identifying CSCs using cell surface markers, and in using genomics tools to identify molecular features unique to these cells. In this brief review, we will discuss different markers, CD44, ALDH1, CD271 and others that have used for identifying and isolating CSCs from primary head & neck and oral squamous cell carcinomas. In particular, we focus on the challenges associated with these experiments as this will be useful to researchers attempting similar isolations. We also discuss some important molecular features gleaned from studying these CSCs such as the expression of stem cell-related markers, loss of cell adhesion and terminal differentiation markers, and the presence of both epithelial and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) features.

Keywords
Oral squamous cell carcinoma
Gingivo-buccal sulcus
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
Cancer stem cells
CD44
ALDH1
Review
Figures
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