IMR Press / FBL / Volume 24 / Issue 7 / DOI: 10.2741/4776

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review
Regulatory non-coding RNAs in nervous system development and disease
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1 Department of Anatomy and Cell Science, Kansai Medical University, 2-5-1 Shinmachi, Hirakata-shi, Osaka-fu, 573-1010 Japan
2 Laboratory of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan
*Correspondence: yamada@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp (Hisao Yamada)
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2019, 24(7), 1203–1240; https://doi.org/10.2741/4776
Published: 1 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulatory long non-coding RNA)
Abstract

Recent evidence demonstrates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate the expression of multiple genes in an epigenetic, transcriptional, or post-transcriptional manner. They are involved in various cellular phenomena, such as the recruitment of transcription factors, epigenetic chaperoning, control of alternative splicing, mRNA stability and translational activity, as well as acting as decoys against microRNAs. In this review, we summarize the pivotal roles of lncRNAs in regulation of the gene expression involved in neural cell differentiation, synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system (CNS). We also describe the aberrant expression of multiple lncRNAs involved in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. The abnormal expression of lncRNAs leads to altered expression levels of target genes, which contributes to neurodegenerative diseases, such as in Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, and to the formation of tumors, such as glioma. Accordingly, we discuss recent findings for the modes of action of lncRNAs in normal CNS development and for aberrant lncRNA actions in the pathogenesis of neuronal diseases.

Keywords
Long non-coding RNA
Central nervous system development
Neurological disease
Alzheimer’s disease
Parkinson’s disease
Glioma
Review
Figures
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