Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Prenylcysteine oxidase 1, a pro-oxidant enzyme of low density lipoproteins
Elevated levels of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) cause atherosclerotic disease, and proteomic analyses have found that these lipoproteins are endowed with prenylcysteine lyase. This systematic review summarizes current understanding of this enzyme, now known as prenylcysteine oxidase 1 (PCYOX1), which hydrolyzes the thioether bond of prenylcysteines in the final step in the degradation of prenylated proteins, releasing hydrogen peroxide, cysteine and the isoprenoid aldehyde. Despite the high variability of the PCYOX1 gene, no polymorphism has yet been associated with any disease. The liver, which is responsible for vehiculization of the enzyme in lipoproteins, is one of the main organs responsible for its expression, together with the gastrointestinal tract, kidney, male reproductive tissue and muscle. Moreover, although hepatic mRNA expression is sensitive to diet and hormones, the repercussion of these changes in LDLs containing PCYOX1 has not been addressed. One consequence of its elevated activity could be an increase in hydrogen peroxide, which might help to propagate the oxidative burden of LDLs, thus making PCYOX1 a potential pharmacological target and a new biomarker in cardiovascular disease.