Academic Editors: Zhonghua Sun and Michael Dandel
Cardiomyopathies are a challenging pathology and echocardiography is essential for diagnosis and prognosis. The most frequent cardiomyopathies are the dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), followed by the less frequent restrictive (RCM) and arrhythmogenic right ventricle cardiomyopathies (ARVC). Echocardiography can identify diagnostic features, and guide further testing for a definitive diagnosis. Echographic parameters are involved in risk score computing and prognosis assessment. While the most prevalent hallmark of HCM is the asymmetric left ventricular hypertrophy and systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve with the obstructive phenotype, DCM shows dilated left ventricle with different degrees of systolic dysfunction, and RCM is usually characterized by undilated ventricles associated with atrial enlargement. The aim of this review is to display and compare the most frequent cardiomyopathies encountered in clinical practice and highlight their most characteristic features in a useful way for the practicing clinician.