IMR Press / JIN / Volume 21 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.31083/j.jin2102067
Open Access Review
Hand movements in Mild Cognitive Impairment: clinical implications and insights for future research
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1 Department of Psychology, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 81100 Caserta, Italy
2 Neurological Unit, CTO Hospital, AORN “Ospedali Dei Colli”, 80131 Naples, Italy
3 Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 80138 Naples, Italy
4 Laboratory of Cognitive Science and Immersive Virtual Reality, Department of Psychology, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 81100 Caserta, Italy
*Correspondence: (Ciro Rosario Ilardi)
These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editor: Rafael Franco
J. Integr. Neurosci. 2022, 21(2), 67;
Submitted: 4 November 2021 | Revised: 6 January 2022 | Accepted: 8 January 2022 | Published: 23 March 2022
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Decreased upper-extremity/visuomotor abilities are frequently encountered in healthy aging. However, few studies have assessed hand movements in the prodromal stage of dementia. The evaluation of visuomotor skills in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (PwMCI) may have non-negligible clinical relevance both in diagnostic and prognostic terms, given the strong relationships with executive functioning and functional autonomies. In the present review paper, these issues will be disclosed by describing general pathophysiological and neuropsychological mechanisms responsible for visuomotor deficits, and by reporting the available experimental results on differences in visuomotor functioning between PwMCI, healthy controls and/or patients with dementia. Moreover, the relationships binding visuomotor and executive domains to functional autonomies will be then addressed. Finally, we will propose insights for future research.

Mild Cognitive Impairment
Alzheimer's disease
Hand movements
Movement planning
Motor control
Executive functions
Fig. 1.
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