IMR Press / FBS / Volume 9 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/S474

Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.


Protein oxidation: an overview of metabolism of sulphur containing amino acid, cysteine

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1 Department of Biosciences, Integral University, Lucknow-226026, India
2 Department of Biochemistry, King George Medical University, Lucknow, India
3 Rajiv Gandhi Center for Diabetes and Endocrinology, J.N. Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002, India
4 Department of Bioengineering, Integral University, Lucknow-226026, India
5 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
6 Department of Biochemistry, J.N. Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002, India

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2017, 9(1), 71–87;
Published: 1 January 2017

The available data suggest that among cellular constituents, proteins are the major target for oxidation primarily because of their quantity and high rate of interactions with ROS. Proteins are susceptible to ROS modifications of amino acid side chains which alter protein structure. Among the amino acids, Cysteine (Cys) is more prone to oxidation by ROS because of its high nucleophilic property. The reactivity of Cys with ROS is due to the presence of thiol group. In the oxidised form, Cys forms disulfide bond, which are primary covalent cross-link found in proteins, and which stabilize the native conformation of a protein. Indirect evidence suggests that thiol modifications by ROS may be involved in neurodegenerative disorders, but the significance and precise extent of the contributions are poorly understood. Here, we review the role of oxidized Cys in different pathological consequences and its biochemistry may increase the research in the discovery of new therapies. The purpose of this review is to re-examine the role and biochemistry of oxidised Cys residues.

Reactive oxygen species
Protein Oxidation
Sulphur containing amino acids
Thiol Group
Disulfide Bond
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