IMR Press / FBS / Volume 9 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/S475

Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.


Identification of natural peptides as a new class of antimalarial drugs by in silico approaches

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1 Department of Physiology, NUS Immunology Programme, Centre for Life Sciences, National University Health System (NUHS), Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore -117456
2 Centro de Analises Proteomicas e Bioquimicas/Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Genomicas e Biotecnologia, UCB, Brasilia, DF, Brazil
3 S-inova, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Dom Bosco, Campo Grande-MS, Brazil
4 Integrated Toxicology Division, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5011, USA
5 Department of Biology, Wilson College, 1015 Philadelphia Avenue, Chambersburg, Pennsylvania 17201, USA
6 Cancer Science Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore-117597
7 School of Biomedical Sciences, Curtin University, Western Australia
8 Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, USA
9 Department of Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Singapore, Singapore-117597
10 NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Octavio Luiz Franco

Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2017, 9(1), 88–110;
Published: 1 January 2017

Malaria is one of the most widespread and serious parasitic diseases worldwide. Currently available antimalarial drugs have side effects, and many strains of Plasmodia have developed resistance to such drugs. The present review examines the use of annexins and of natural peptides from snake venom as a new class of anti-malarial agents, with the key property of reducing inflammation. Severe cases of malaria manifest elevated serum levels of liver enzymes, inflammation, fibrin deposition, apoptosis, and reduction in peripheral CD8+ Tcells. The annexin-A1/5 proteins trigger inflammation via increased expression of diverse cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-10), however, by shielding microbial phospholipids they prevent injury via damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Here, we also review an in silico-based bioengineering approach that may allow for a better design, synthesis and characterization of novel peptides from snake venom as a more effective approach to treatment due to their improved antimalarial activity.

Plasmodium strains
Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)
Antimicrobial peptide (AMPs)
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