Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
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Academic Editor: Edmund K. Waller
Currently, nearly all the autologous stem cell transplantation and majority of allogeneic stem cell transplantation are performed using circulating peripheral blood stem cells. At steady conditions, less than 0.05% of the peripheral white cells are believed to be CD34+, a surrogate marker for stem cells. The content of hematopoietic CD34+ cells in the blood can be increased dramatically following recovery from myelosuppressive chemotherapy and/or the administration of hematopoietic growth factors (GM-CS or G-CSF), and an engrafting dose of stem cells can be collected by large volume apheresis following hematopoietic cytokine treatment. However these strategies fail to result in an adequate number of hematopoietic cells in 5-30% of the cases, limiting the ability of patients to receive high dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation in the treatment of their cancer. Plerixafor, a CXCR4 antagonist has been found to be a potent stem cell mobilizer and it's superiority used in combination with G-CSF over G-CSF alone has been seen in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma in double blind randomized phase III clinical trials, leading to FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approval. This review article describes the development of plerixafor to mobilize stem cells and optimal strategies for stem cell collection from peripheral blood.