IMR Press / FBL / Volume 29 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.31083/j.fbl2904133
Open Access Review
Investigating Biofilms: Advanced Methods for Comprehending Microbial Behavior and Antibiotic Resistance
Show Less
1 Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, 51452 Buraydah, Saudi Arabia
*Correspondence: (Ahmad Almatroudi)
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2024, 29(4), 133;
Submitted: 20 December 2023 | Revised: 21 January 2024 | Accepted: 7 February 2024 | Published: 29 March 2024
Copyright: © 2024 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Biofilms, which consist of microorganisms enclosed in an extracellular polymeric material (EPS), hold immense importance in the fields of environmental research, industry, and medicine. They play a significant role in ecosystem dynamics and stability, but they also pose issues such as biofouling, corrosion, and pollution. Biofilms in medical environments are linked to persistent infections and elevated healthcare expenses. The EPS matrix plays a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and antibiotic resistance of these structures. The research primarily investigates the role of the EPS matrix in facilitating horizontal gene transfer among biofilm communities, with a particular emphasis on EPS and its impact on this process. The process is recognized as a pivotal mechanism in the emergence of antibiotic resistance, underscoring the crucial function of EPS in the dynamics of biofilms. The analysis also highlights the significant financial constraints caused by biofilms in several industries. Biofilm-associated infections in the healthcare sector result in escalated treatment expenses and extended hospitalization periods. In an industrial context, biofilms have a role in increasing maintenance expenses and product contamination, emphasizing the need for efficient management solutions. This review presents the most recent progress in biofilm research, emphasizing the utilization of sophisticated imaging tools and molecular methodologies. In addition to conventional imaging techniques, the research explores the utilization of sophisticated molecular tools, such as DNA and RNA sequencing, in conjunction with proteomics. These approaches are essential for assessing the genetic and metabolic mechanisms that regulate biofilm development and antibiotic resistance. The review underscores the significance of employing an interdisciplinary methodology in the study of biofilms. By incorporating a range of approaches, such as sophisticated imaging and molecular analysis, a comprehensive understanding of biofilm dynamics may be achieved. This approach also opens up possibilities for developing novel solutions to address the negative impacts of biofilms on health, industry, and the environment.

bacteria resistance
biofilm control
Fig. 1.
Back to top