IMR Press / FBL / Volume 29 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.31083/j.fbl2902063
Open Access Original Research
Genome-Wide Identification, Sequence Alignment, and Transcription of Five Sex-Related Genes in Largemouth Bass (Micropterus Salmoides)
Xinhui Zhang1,2,†Zhiqiang Ruan2,†Chengfei Sun3,†Cancan Hu4Yu Huang2Xinxin You1,2Xinwen Wang2,4Junmin Xu2,4Huan Liu1,5Xin Liu1,5Xing Ye3,*Qiong Shi1,2,6,*
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1 College of Life Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing, China
2 Shenzhen Key Lab of Marine Genomics, Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Molecular Breeding in Marine Economic Animals, BGI Academy of Marine Sciences, BGI Marine, 518081 Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
3 Key Laboratory of Tropical and Subtropical Fishery Resources Application and Cultivation, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, 510380 Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
4 Aquatic Breeding Center, BGI Marine, 518081 Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
5 State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Genomics, BGI-Shenzhen, 518083 Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
6 Laboratory of Aquatic Genomics, College of Life Sciences and Oceanography, Shenzhen University, 518060 Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
*Correspondence: (Xing Ye);; (Qiong Shi)
These authors contributed equally.
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2024, 29(2), 63;
Submitted: 2 September 2023 | Revised: 12 December 2023 | Accepted: 18 December 2023 | Published: 6 February 2024
Copyright: © 2024 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Background: Largemouth bass (Micropterus Salmoides) is an economically important fish species in China. Most research has focused on its growth, disease resistance, and nutrition improvement. However, the sex-determining genes in largemouth bass are still unclear. The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) gene family, including amh, amhr2 and gsdf, plays an important role in the sex determination and differentiation of various fishes. These genes are potentially involved in sex determination in largemouth bass. Methods: We performed a systematic analysis of 5 sex-related genes (amh, amhr2, gsdf, cyp19a1, foxl2) in largemouth bass using sequence alignment, collinearity analysis, transcriptome, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). This included a detailed assessment of their sequences, gene structures, evolutionary traits, and gene transcription patterns in various tissues including gonads, and at different developmental stages. Results: Comparative genomics revealed that the 5 sex-related genes were highly conserved in various fish genomes. These genes did not replicate, mutate or lose in largemouth bass. However, some were duplicated (amh, amhr2 and gsdf), mutated (gsdf) or lost (amhr2) in other fishes. Some genes (e.g., gsdf) showed significant differences in genomic sequence between males and females, which may contribute to sex determination and sex differentiation in these fishes. qRT-PCR was applied to quantify transcription profiling of the 5 genes during gonadal development and in the adult largemouth bass. Interestingly, amh, amhr2 and gsdf were predominantly expressed in the testis, while cyp19a1 and foxl2 were mainly transcribed in the ovary. All 5 sex-related genes were differentially expressed in the testes and ovaries from the 56th day post-fertilization (dpf). We therefore speculate that male/female differentiation in the largemouth bass may begin at this critical time-point. Examination of the transcriptome data also allowed us to screen out several more sex-related candidate genes. Conclusions: Our results provide a valuable genetic resource for investigating the physiological functions of these 5 sex-related genes in sex determination and gonadal differentiation, as well as in the control of gonad stability in adult largemouth bass.

largemouth bass
sex-related gene
transcriptome sequencing
gonadal development
differentially expressed genes
2022YFE0139700/National Key Research and Development Program of China
KJYF202101-02/Special Program for Science Technology Innovation and Industrial Development of Shenzhen Dapeng New District
KJYF202101-13/Special Program for Science Technology Innovation and Industrial Development of Shenzhen Dapeng New District
Fig. 1.
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