IMR Press / FBL / Volume 25 / Issue 7 / DOI: 10.2741/4861

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Protein kinases as regulators of osmolyte accumulation under stress conditions: An overview
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1 Clinical Biochemistry, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, 190006
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2020, 25(7), 1386–1411; https://doi.org/10.2741/4861
Published: 1 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural genomics of human kinome)
Abstract

Accumulation of osmolytes, during cell volume perturbations, as cell volume regulators is ensured through their de novo synthesis, decreased degradation and transport from their site of synthesis to the site of utility through various transport systems. Among these, transport system mediated accumulation has been observed to be quite significant during long term cell volume perturbation. Under stress conditions, these osmolyte transporters are regulated at transcriptional as well as translational level. At translational level, protein kinases carry out phosphorylation of osmolyte transporters and have been shown to play a crucial role in cell volume homeostasis. In fact phosphorylation of osmolyte transporters on their conserved residues regulates the uptake and efflux of osmolytes by cells. Additionally, accumulated osmolytes in turn have been shown to modulate the structure and functioning of protein kinases. The present review has tried to provide an overview about the role of protein kinases in regulation of osmolyte accumulation under stress conditions. Due to their ability of regulating osmolyte accumulation, potential of protein kinases as therapeutic targets for diseases like cancer has also been highlighted.

Keywords
Osmolyte
Protein kinase
Cell volume regulation
Osmolyte transporter
Cancer
Phosphorylation
betaine transporter
taurine transporter
myoinositol transporter
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