IMR Press / FBL / Volume 23 / Issue 6 / DOI: 10.2741/4633

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

Procoagulant activity during viral infections

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1 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA
2 Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, McAllister Heart Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA
3 Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis (CTH), University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2018, 23(6), 1060–1081; https://doi.org/10.2741/4633
Published: 1 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innate immune mechanisms in thrombosis and vascular biology)
Abstract

The abundance of evidence suggest that inflammation of immune and non-immune cells may lead to an imbalance of the pro- and anti-coagulant state during viral infections. During systemic infections, the endothelium plays a critical role in regulating hemostasis, and severe imbalances of endothelial function and activation can contribute to organ failure. Viral infections may elevate plasma levels of procoagulant markers such as TAT and D-dimer TF-positive MPs as well as von Willebrand factor (vWF). Although multiple clinical studies are showing the association of viral infection and increased prothrombotic risk, the pathological mechanisms have not been fully identified for most viral infections. Viral infection mediated TLRs activation is both cell type- and species-specific and explains the difficulties in correlating murine model data with the human data. In this review, we briefly discuss the TF-dependent coagulation activation, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling during viral infections, and their contributions to the procoagulant response.

Keywords
Procoagulant activity
Toll-Like Receptors
Tissue Factor
Viral Infections
Review
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