Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
In terms of both incidence and mortality, lung tumor is the most common cancer in the world today. Among lung tumors, 80% are classified as non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and are mostly diagnosed at an advanced stage (either locally advanced or metastatic disease). Platinum-based doublet chemotherapy, the standard treatment for advanced NSCLC, has reached a plateau of effectiveness and achieves mostly partial responses in only 30%-40% of patients and a modest survival increase. Thus, the search for new molecularly targeted therapies is mandatory. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is frequently over activated in human cancers playing a critical role both in the initiation and progression of NSCLC. Activating mutations of this pathway play a role in the development of resistance to chemotherapy and to the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) erlotinib and gefitinib. These mutations are observed in 2-5 % of non-squamous NSCLC and 8-10 % of squamous NSCLC. In this paper, we describe the available data and the possible future role of PI3k inhibitors in the treatment of advanced NSCLC.