IMR Press / FBE / Volume 8 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/E762

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.


An overview of burning mouth syndrome

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1 Multidisciplinary Department of Medical-Surgical and Odontostomatological Specialties, Second University of Naples, Via Luigi de Crecchio, 6, 80138 Naples, Italy
2 Section of Odontostomatology, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy
3 Department of Neuroscience and Biomedical Tecnologies. University of Milan- Bicocca Monza, Italy

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2016, 8(1), 213–218;
Published: 1 January 2016

Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterised by the presence of a burning sensation in the oral mucosa in the absence of any clinically apparent mucosal sign. It occurs more commonly in older women and often affects the tongue tip and lateral borders, lips, and hard and soft palates. Besides the burning sensation, patients with BMS may complain of unremitting oral mucosal pain, dysgeusia, and xerostomia. The exact pathophysiology of primary BMS remains unknown. A major challenge for the clinician is the treatment of BMS: identifying possible causative factors is the first step, but BMS is often idiopathic. Drug therapy, in addition to behavioural therapy and psychotherapy, may help to eliminate the symptoms. Considering the growing incidence of BMS in older people, further research is required to determine the true efficacy of current management strategies for patients with this disorder.

Burning Mouth Syndrome
Chronic Pain
Oral Pain
Oral Health
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