IMR Press / FBE / Volume 5 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.2741/E629

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.


Histogenetic aspects of deer antler development

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1 AgResearch Invermay Agricultural Centre, Private Bag 50034, Mosgiel, New Zealand
2 State Kay Laboratory for Molecular Biology of Special Economic Animals, Changchun, China

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2013, 5(2), 479–489;
Published: 1 January 2013

Deer antlers are the only mammalian organs that, once lost, can fully grow back; therefore, they offer a unique opportunity for investigating the mechanism underlying mammalian organ regeneration. This review summarizes the current knowledge of antler histogenesis. The axis of a pedicle (antecedent of antler) and a first antler consists of an internal component and an external component. Formation of the internal component commences from the proliferation of antlerogenic periosteal cells and undergoes 4 ossification stages: Formation of the external component goes through 3 distinguishable stages. Antler velvet transformation is mainly associated with alteration in the skin appendages. Subsequent antler regeneration is divided into 5 stages. The present account, together with the companion paper on antler morphogenesis in this special issue (E4, 1836-1842), provides a foundation for further mechanistic study of this fascinating model for mammalian organ regeneration.

Biomedical Model
Antlerogenic periosteum
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