IMR Press / FBE / Volume 3 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.2741/E269

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Complexity of tumor vasculature and molecular targeting therapies
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1 Department of Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-0001, Japan
2 Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama 236-0004, Japan, Department of Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-0001, Japan

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed,

Academic Editor: Mitsuko Furuya

Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2011, 3(2), 549–561; https://doi.org/10.2741/E269
Published: 1 January 2011
Abstract

Malignant solid tumors require blood supply for their uncontrollable progression. Angiogenic blood vessels generally sprout from preexisting vascular cells. In addition, various types of precursor cells also participate in tumor neovascularization. They include endothelial progenitor cells, hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells that are stimulated and attracted into tumor lesion, in which a wide variety of proinflammatory factors are involved. Among key molecules, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) works as a mastermind regulator. Humanized monoclonal antibodies targeting VEGF-mediated signaling pathways are currently used as the most pervasive drugs in several types of progressive tumors. Adverse effects of these drugs include hypertension and proteinuria. Such symptoms are widely observed in preeclamptic patients whose blood contain high amount of natural VEGF antagonist. Vasoactive G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)-mediated signalings such as renin-angiotensin system and chemokine axes are also noticed that they may become effective therapeutic targets. In this review, we discuss general view of angiogenic microenvironment in solid tumors, and highlight several key signaling molecules and inhibitory effects of them on the whole system.

Keywords
Angiogenesis
Tumor
Vegf
Plgf
ReninAngiotensin System
Chemokine
Review
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