IMR Press / FBE / Volume 15 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.31083/j.fbe1504025
Open Access Original Research
Survival of Nematode Larvae after Treatment with Eugenol, Isoeugenol, Thymol, and Carvacrol
Show Less
1 Department of Parasitology and Veterinary and Sanitary Expertise, Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, 49000 Dnipro, Ukraine
2 Department of Zoology and Ecology, Oles Honchar Dnipro National University, 49010 Dnipro, Ukraine
*Correspondence: (Olexandra Boyko); (Viktor Brygadyrenko)
These authors contributed equally.
Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2023, 15(4), 25;
Submitted: 7 September 2023 | Revised: 25 October 2023 | Accepted: 1 November 2023 | Published: 17 November 2023
Copyright: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Background: Helminthiases inflict annual losses on the meat and dairy livestock industries. The commonest species of ruminant parasites are the nematodes: Strongyloides papillosus and Haemonchus contortus, which lay eggs in the intestine and enter the feces. There, the eggs develop into larvae, which when voided with the feces crawl onto plants. Methods: In our experiment, we evaluated the survivability of the noninvasive and invasive (L1-2 and L3, respectively) larvae of S. papillosus, H. contortus (L3), and Muellerius capillaris (L1) in vitro by subjecting each to natural compounds present in the essential oils of many plants. In the experiment, we used aqueous emulsions of eugenol, isoeugenol, thymol, and carvacrol. Results: Administering 1% concentrations of those compounds killed 100% of the nematode larvae following 24 h of exposure. Thymol, eugenol, and isoeugenol at a concentration of 0.1% also caused high larvae mortality (over 96%). Conclusions: Continuous usage of synthetic anthelmintic drugs in veterinary medicine has led to the parasites developing resistance, thus, a search for novel nematicidal drugs is required. Eugenol, isoeugenol, thymol, and carvacrol are promising compounds against nematodes. However, additional research is required regarding peculiarities in their actions toward the bodies of mammals and parasitic nematodes.

nematode larvae mortality
essential oil
nematicidal activity
migrating larva
plant extract
Back to top