IMR Press / FBS / Volume 11 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/S527

Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

The persisting puzzle of racial disparity in triple negative breast cancer: looking through a new lens
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1 Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA
2 Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, India
Send correspondence to: Ritu Aneja, 100 Piedmont Ave., Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA, Tel: 404-413-5417, Fax: 404-413-5301, E-mail:
Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2019, 11(1), 75–88;
Published: 1 March 2019

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by the absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors and absence of amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2). This disease has no approved treatment with a poor prognosis particularly in African-American (AA) as compared to European-American (EA) patients. Gene ontology analysis showed specific gene pathways that are differentially regulated and gene signatures that are differentially expressed in AA as compared to EA. Such differences might underlie the basis for the aggressive nature and poor prognosis of TNBC in AA patients. In-depth studies of these pathways and differential genetic signature might give significant clues to improve our understanding of tumor biology associated with AA TNBC to advance the prognosis and survival rates. Along with gene ontology analysis, we suggest that post-translational modifications (PTM) could also play a crucial role in the dismal survival rate of AA TNBC patients. Further investigations are necessary to explore this terrain of PTMs to identify the racially disparate burden in TNBC.

Triple Negative Breast Cancer
Post Translational Modification
Racial Disparity
Gene Expression
Figure 1
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