Academic Editors: Ichiro Wakabayashi and Klaus Groschner
Abnormal or excessive accumulation of adipose tissue leads to a condition called obesity. Long-term positive energy balance arises when energy intake surpasses energy expenditure, which increases the risk of metabolic and other chronic diseases, such as atherosclerosis. In industrialized countries, the prevalence of coronary heart disease is positively correlated with the human development index. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACD) is among the primary causes of death on a global scale. There is evidence to support the notion that individuals from varied socioeconomic origins may experience varying mortality effects as a result of high blood pressure, high blood sugar, raised cholesterol levels, and high body mass index (BMI). However, it is believed that changes in the concentration of trace elements in the human body are the main contributors to the development of some diseases and the transition from a healthy to a diseased state. Metal trace elements, non-metal trace elements, and the sampling site will be examined to determine whether trace elements can aid in the diagnosis of atherosclerosis. This article will discuss whether trace elements, discussed under three sections of metal trace elements, non-metal trace elements, and the sampling site, can participate in the diagnosis of atherosclerosis.