Academic Editor: Michael Dandel
The modern conceptual revolution in managing patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD), based on improvement in preventive and pharmacological therapy, advocates coronary artery revascularization only for smaller group of patients with refractory angina, poor left ventricular systolic function, or high-risk coronary anatomy. Therefore, our conventional wisdom about stress testing must be questioned within this new and revolutionary paradigm. Exercise stress echocardiography (ESE) is still a well-known technique for assessing known or suspected stable CAD, it is safe, accessible, and well-tolerated, and there is an widespread evidence base. ESE has been remarkably resilient throughout years of innovation in noninvasive cardiology. Its value is not to be determined over the short portion of diagnostic accuracy but mainly through its prognostic value evident in a wide range of patient subsets. It is coming very close to the modern profile of a leading test that should include, in addition to an essential accettable diagnostic and prognostic accuracy, qualities of low cost, no radiation exposure, and minor environmental traces. In this review, we will discuss advantages, diagnostic accuracy, prognostic value in general and special populations, cost-effectiveness, and changes in referral patterns of ESE in the modern era.