IMR Press / RCM / Volume 23 / Issue 7 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2307229
Open Access Original Research
Proteomic Analysis of Serum Proteins from Patients with Severe Coronary Artery Calcification
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1 Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, 230001 Hefei, Anhui, China
*Correspondence: (LiKun Ma)
These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editors: Gianluca Rigatelli and Marco Zuin
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2022, 23(7), 229;
Submitted: 13 March 2022 | Revised: 19 May 2022 | Accepted: 24 May 2022 | Published: 24 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis: Translation from Basic to Clinic)
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Background: Proteomic studies investigating novel molecular markers of coronary artery calcification (CAC) are scarce.This study compared the protein expression in the serum of patients with severe CAC and non-CAC. Methods: The serum from 30 patients with severe CAC and 30 matched-controls were screened by data-independent acquisition(DIA)-based proteomic technology. Bioinformatics analysis tools were used to analyze the underlying molecular mechanisms of the differentially expressed proteins. Candidate proteins were further validated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in an independent cohort. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to estimate the diagnostic power of the candidate proteins. Results: Among the 110 identified proteins, the expression of 81 was significantly upregulated, whereas 29 proteins were downregulated (fold change 1.5; p < 0.05) between patients with and without CAC. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the differential proteins are involved in complement and coagulation cascades, platelet activation, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, or glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathways. Further verification showed that serum levels of complement C5 (C5), fibrinogen gamma (FGG), pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2), and tropomyosin 4 (TPM4) were consistent with the proteomic findings, which could allow discrimination between CAC and non-CAC patients. Conclusions: This study revealed that high serum levels of serum C5, FGG, PKM2, and TPM4 proteins were linked to severe CAC. These proteins may be developed as biomarkers to predict coronary calcification.

coronary calcification
data-independent acquisition
quantitative proteomics
Fig. 1.
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