IMR Press / JIN / Volume 22 / Issue 6 / DOI: 10.31083/j.jin2206157
Open Access Review
Research Progress of Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Parkinson's Disease
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1 Department of Pharmacy, The People's Hospital of Kaizhou District, 405400 Chongqing, China
2 Department of Pharmacy, Chengdu Second People's Hospital, 610017 Chengdu, Sichuan, China
3 Department of Pharmacy, Cangxi People's Hospital, 628400 Nanchong, Sichuan, China
4 Department of Gastroenterology, The People's Hospital of Kaizhou District, 405400 Chongqing, China
*Correspondence: (Xin Luo)
J. Integr. Neurosci. 2023, 22(6), 157;
Submitted: 30 May 2023 | Revised: 19 June 2023 | Accepted: 3 July 2023 | Published: 30 October 2023
Copyright: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by misfolding of α-synuclein. Clinical manifestations include slowly developing resting tremor, muscle rigidity, bradykinesia and abnormal gait. The pathological mechanisms underlying PD are complex and yet to be fully elucidated. Clinical studies suggest that the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms may precede motor symptoms in PD patients. The microbiota-gut-brain axis plays a bidirectional communication role between the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system. This bidirectional communication between the brain and gut is influenced by the neural, immune and endocrine systems related to the gut microbiome. A growing body of evidence indicates a strong link between dysregulation of the gut microbiota and PD. In this review, we present recent progress in understanding the relationship between the microbiota-gut-brain axis and PD. We focus on the role of the gut microbiota, the unique changes observed in the microbiome of PD patients, and the impact of these changes on the progression of PD. Finally, we evaluate the role of current treatment strategies for PD, including probiotics, fecal microbial transplants, dietary modifications, and related drug therapies.

Parkinson's disease
microbiota-gut-brain axis
gut microbiome
gut microbiota intervention
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