IMR Press / JIN / Volume 22 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.31083/j.jin2203065
Open Access Review
Neuroinflammation, Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis, and Depression: The Vicious Circle
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1 Unidad de Investigación UNAM-INC, División de Investigación, Facultad de Medicina, UNAM, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, 14080 Ciudad de México, Mexico
2 Unidad de Investigación Biomédica en Infectología e Inmunología, Hospital de Infectología, Centro Médico Nacional “La Raza”, IMSS, Col. La Raza, 02990 Ciudad de México, Mexico
3 Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, 50134 Florence, Italy
4 Interdisciplinary Internal Medicine Unit, Careggi University Hospital, 50134 Florence, Italy
*Correspondence: (Amedeo Amedei); (María M. Aguirre-García)
J. Integr. Neurosci. 2023, 22(3), 65;
Submitted: 4 February 2023 | Revised: 3 March 2023 | Accepted: 7 March 2023 | Published: 8 May 2023
Copyright: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide, contributing to the global disease burden. From above, it is a priority to investigate models that fully explain its physiopathology to develop new treatments. In the last decade, many studies have shown that gut microbiota (GM) dysbiosis influences brain functions and participate, in association with immunity, in the pathogenesis of depression. Thereby, GM modulation could be a novel therapeutic target for depression. This review aims to evidence how the GM and the immune system influence mental illness, particularly depression. Here, we focus on the communication mechanisms between the intestine and the brain and the impact on the development of neuroinflammation contributing to the development of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). However, most of the current findings are in animal models, suggesting the need for studies in humans. In addition, more analysis of metabolites and cytokines are needed to identify new pathophysiological mechanisms improving anti-depression treatments.

gut-brain axis
mental disorders
CVU 742855/CONACyT fellowship
Fig. 1.
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