†These authors contributed equally.
Background: Glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most frequent enzymopathy worldwide; it is a genetic disorder that affects red blood cells and causes hemolysis. Here, we conducted a study on G6PD-deficient subjects in Mauritania to evaluate the molecular characteristics associated with a deficiency in this enzyme and the frequency of nucleotide polymorphisms in the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene. Method and Materials: A total of 943 blood samples were collected from blood donors (803 males and 140 females; 364 white Moors; 439 black Moors; 112 Pulaar; 18 Wolof; 10 Soninke). All blood samples were analyzed using a rapid screening test. G6PD status was analyzed quantitatively by the Randox G6PD test. Samples deficient in G6PD were extracted from the whole blood samples and subjected to DNA genotyping. The most frequent G6PD variants were determined by two molecular techniques: restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and multiplex PCR using the GENESPARK G6PD African kit. A total of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (G202A, A376G, A542T, G680T, C563T, and T968C) were identified. Results: The prevalence of G6PD deficiency in this population sample was 8.1%. The most common mutation was A376G/202A and was characterized by the G6PD A-phenotype, which is more common in the G6PD-deficient black Moors population. The wilaya in Nouakchott was the most affected among the 13 wilayas studied. Conclusions: This study shows, for the first time, the presence of the G680T mutation.