Academic Editor: Yoshinori Marunaka
Chronic kidney disease is generally progressive and currently has no reliable treatment to reverse a decline in kidney function or to slow the progression of the disease. Diabetic nephropathy is one of the leading causes of end-stage kidney failure. Kidney damage in diabetic nephropathy is largely attributed to the increased oxidative stress, affecting its metabolic activity, metabolic pathways, and hemodynamic pathways. In diabetic patients, hyperglycemia causes an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species that further increase oxidative stress. These reactive oxygen species are created through a variety of pathways, providing the opportunity for treatment using anti-oxidative defense mechanisms to prevent vascular injury. This review will give an overview of oxidative stress, along with the current treatments and limitations of diabetic nephropathy. We will also discuss the potential of antioxidative therapies, with an emphasis on the nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway.