IMR Press / FBS / Volume 14 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.31083/j.fbs1402014
Open Access Review
Anti-Oxidative Therapy in Diabetic Nephropathy
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1 Division of Kidney and Pancreas Transplant, Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine Medical Center, Orange, CA 92868, USA
2 Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, University of California, Irvine Medical Center, Orange, CA 92868, USA
*Correspondence: hichii@hs.uci.edu (Hirohito Ichii)
Academic Editor: Yoshinori Marunaka
Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2022, 14(2), 014; https://doi.org/10.31083/j.fbs1402014
Submitted: 14 February 2022 | Revised: 29 March 2022 | Accepted: 13 April 2022 | Published: 9 May 2022
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.
Abstract

Chronic kidney disease is generally progressive and currently has no reliable treatment to reverse a decline in kidney function or to slow the progression of the disease. Diabetic nephropathy is one of the leading causes of end-stage kidney failure. Kidney damage in diabetic nephropathy is largely attributed to the increased oxidative stress, affecting its metabolic activity, metabolic pathways, and hemodynamic pathways. In diabetic patients, hyperglycemia causes an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species that further increase oxidative stress. These reactive oxygen species are created through a variety of pathways, providing the opportunity for treatment using anti-oxidative defense mechanisms to prevent vascular injury. This review will give an overview of oxidative stress, along with the current treatments and limitations of diabetic nephropathy. We will also discuss the potential of antioxidative therapies, with an emphasis on the nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway.

Keywords
review
diabetic nephropathy
antioxidative therapies
oxidative stress
diabetes
hyperglycemia
hypertension
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