Academic Editor: Gustavo Caetano-Anollés
Among central nervous system (CNS) infections (e.g., meningitis, brain abscess, ventriculitis, transverse myelitis), those caused by Staphylococcus aureus (SA) are particularly challenging both in management and treatment, with poor clinical outcomes and long hospital stay. It has been estimated that SA is responsible for around 1%–7% of meningitis (up to 19% in healthcare-associated meningitis). Recent neurosurgical procedures and immunocompromisation are major risk factors for SA CNS infections. Hand hygiene, surveillance nasal swabs and perioperative prophylaxis are crucial points for effective SA infections prevention. In case of SA-CNS infections, pending microbiological results, anti-methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA) antibiotic, with good CNS penetration, should be included, with prompt de-escalation as soon as MRSA is ruled out. Consultation with an expert in antimicrobial therapy is recommended as well as prompt source control when feasible. In this narrative review, we reviewed current literature to provide practical suggestions on diagnosis, prevention, management, and treatment of SA CNS infections.