Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Academic Editor: Rajesh K. Naz
Prostate cancer (prostatic adenocarcinoma) is the second highest cause of cancer mortality in men and the benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) affects 80% of men by age 80. The current diagnosis of prostate cancer relies on the serum levels of the well-known molecule designated as prostate-specific antigen (PSA). PSA, however, has limited sensitivity and specificity in appropriately detecting the earlier stages of abnormal prostate growth. Additional molecules need to be identified that are prostate-specific and have better sensitivity and specificity that can detect prostate cancer and BPH at an earlier stage for clinical management. Presently, several laboratories are actively engaged in searching for such molecules. The aim of this article is to review the current status of various prostate genes reported in the literature that have been claimed to be prostate-specific with a function in normal and abnormal prostate growth and development. The long-term objective is to define the lacunae that exist in the literature in our search for an ideal antigen.