IMR Press / FBL / Volume 21 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.2741/4402

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article

Exploring the characterization tools of guanine-quadruplexes

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1 Nucleic Acids Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi-110 007, India
2 Cluster Innovation Center, University of Delhi, Delhi-110 007, India
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2016, 21(3), 468–478; https://doi.org/10.2741/4402
Published: 1 January 2016
Abstract

Occurrence of guanine-rich sequences throughout the genome at specific locations like chromosomal ends (telomeres), promoters and Untranslated regions (UTR’s) is very well documented. Quite recently, visualization of guanine-quadruplex in human and mammalian cells have also provided a very significant evidence for the in vivo existence of guanine-quadruplex, reconfirming their biological relevance in cellular processes like replication, transcription, recombination, etc. Guanine quadruplexes have enormous potential of exhibiting various topologies which differ, by number/orientation of strands or loop orientations etc. Some relatively new polymorphic structures like 3+1 quadruplex, G-triplex, and Tri-G-quadruplex have also been proposed for the guanine-rich sequences. Various biochemical and biophysical techniques have been used to characterize these multistranded DNA structures. An extensive review of the mechanistic models of the already existing and newly emerging techniques is actually required, which may further facilitate our understanding about these structures. This review aims to summarize some of these techniques along with their requirements and limitations, which might further give some insights for the fine tuning of the solution and environmental conditions needed for facilitating guanine-quadruplex formation.

Keywords
G-Quadruplex
Circular dichroism spectroscopy
Differential scanning calorimetry
Gel-electrophoresis
Techniques characterizing G-quadruplex
Techniques to characterize guanine-quadruplexes
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