Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic aberrations play definite roles in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. These include aberrations in genomic DNA methylation, microRNA expression, and histone modification. The aberrant histone modification status and the aberrant expression of histone deacetylases, which regulate histone acetylation, in endometriosis are the focus of this review. Herein, we summarize the recent studies in the following areas: (i) hyperacetylation of histones located in the promoter lesions of G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1, steroidogenic factor-1, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha genes and (ii) hypoacetylation of histones located in the promoter lesions of estrogen receptor alpha, homeobox A10, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, p16INK4a, p21Waf1/Cip1, p27Kip1, checkpoint kinase 2, death receptor 6, and E-cadherin genes. Further research from the viewpoint of epigenetics may lead to the identification of the candidate molecules that are aberrantly expressed in endometriosis and may help elucidate the pathogenesis of this disease. In addition, epigenetic drugs (including histone deacetylase inhibitors) show promise for the treatment of endometriosis by amending the expression of these epigenetically dysregulated genes.