IMR Press / FBL / Volume 18 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.2741/4121

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review
Scorpion beta-toxins and voltage-gated sodium channels: interactions and effects
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1 Department of Molecular Medicine and Bioprocesses, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Avenida Universidad, 2001, Colonia Chamilpa, Apartado Postal 510-3, Cuernavaca 62210, Mexico
Academic Editor:Xian-Chun Zeng
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2013, 18(2), 572–587;
Published: 1 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Venom peptides and their targets on mammalian cells)


Scorpion beta-toxins (beta-ScTxs) modify the activity of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels, thereby producing neurotoxic effects in diverse organisms. For this reason, beta-ScTxs are essential tools not only for discriminating among different channel sub-types but also for studying the mechanisms of channel gating and the structure-function relationship involved in this process. This review considers both the structural and the functional implications of the beta-ScTxs after they bind to their receptor sites, in accord with their classification into a) anti-mammalian beta-ScTxs, b) anti-insect selective excitatory beta-ScTxs, c) anti-insect selective depressant beta-ScTxs and d) beta-ScTxs active on both insect and mammals Nav channels. Additionally, the molecular mechanism of toxin action by the “voltage sensor trapping” model is discussed, and the systemic effects produced by these toxins are reviewed.

Beta-Scorpion Toxin; bioactive surface; Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel; Voltage Sensor Trapping Model
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