IMR Press / FBL / Volume 14 / Issue 10 / DOI: 10.2741/3489

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Systemic inflammatory response following acute traumatic brain injury
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1 Combat Care Laboratory, Defence Medical and Environmental Research Institute, DSO National Laboratories, 27 Medical Drive #09-01, Singapore 117510
2 Department of Anatomy, The Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore117597

Academic Editor: Madhav Bhatia

Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2009, 14(10), 3795–3813;
Published: 1 January 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animals in SIRS research)

The early, delayed, and systemic effects of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) are the result of inflammatory mediators which initiate systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), subsequent complement deficits and coagulopathy. Once SIRS is triggered by acute inflammation, it can detrimentally self-propagate. Systemic inflammation causes tissue damage leading to further inflammation and damage, leaving the body in a vicious cycle of hyperinflammation. Therefore, important inflammatory mediators like interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, are targeted in compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS) in an attempt to control the development of SIRS. The hypothalamus-pituitary (HPA)-axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) efferent limbs in CARS provide negative feedback for the production of inflammatory mediators. However, in the case of acute TBI, the activation of CARS often leads to the complication of immunosuppression which may result in multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and mortality. In light of this, the activation of the SIRS following acute TBI does not bode well. If left uncontrolled, multiple systems will be implicated making it difficult to remedy.

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