Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Proanthocyanidins inhibit mitogenic and survival-signaling in vitro and tumor growth in vivo
Academic Editor: Rakesh Srivastava
We have previously shown that treatment of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells with grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) induces apoptosis of A431 cells. Here, we report that treatment of A431 cells with GSPs inhibits constitutive as well as EGF-induced higher levels of phosphorylated proteins of MAPK family in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is associated with the reactivation of MAP kinase phosphatases. Western blot analysis reveals that GSPs decrease: (i) the levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and the phosphorylation of Akt at ser473, and (ii) the constitutive activation of NF-kappaB/p65. As NF-kappaB-targeted genes play crucial roles in tumor cell proliferation and differentiation, we assessed the effect of GSPs on proteins encoded by these genes. Treatment with GSPs results in inhibition of the expression of COX-2, iNOS, PCNA, cyclin D1 and MMP-9 in A431 cells compared with non-GSPs-treated controls. Treatment of athymic nude mice with GSPs by oral gavage (50 or 100 mg/kg body weight/mouse) reduces the growth of A431-xenografts in mice, which is associated with the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in xenografts as indicated by the inhibition of mRNA expression of PCNA and cyclin D1, and of NF-kappaB activity. Together, the data suggest that GSPs might be effective in the treatment of skin cancers.