IMR Press / FBL / Volume 13 / Issue 18 / DOI: 10.2741/3197

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article

Isolation and cytotoxicity of low-molecular-weight metabolites of Candida albicans

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1 Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, Schrottova 39, Zagreb, Republic of Croatia
2 Groupe Immuno-mycotoxicologie, Laboratoire de Pharmacologie-Toxicologie, Institut National de Recherche Agronomique, Toulouse, France
3 CNRS URA 2096, CEA Saclay DSV/DRM/SPI, Gif sur Yvette, France
4 Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska cesta 2, Zagreb, Republic of Croatia
5 GlaxoSmithKline Zagreb Research Center, Prilaz baruna Filipovica 29, Zagreb, Republic of Croatia
6 Zagreb Public Health Institute, Department of Microbiology, Mirogojska cesta 16, Zagreb, Republic of Croatia

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Nina Luisa Ivanovska

Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2008, 13(18), 6893–6904;
Published: 1 May 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of IFN-gamma in immune responses to candida albicans infections)

In this study, the low molecular weight lypophilic metabolites of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis strains produced in a synthetic medium with the addition of fetal calf serum were identified using LC/MS and MS/MS technique and quantified. All strains investigated produce a metabolite with a UV spectra maximum at 224 and 279 nm and minimum at 243 nm. Following comparison with ESI, MS/MS spectral data of a reference compound, the metabolite was identified as 3-indoleethanol (tryptophol). The concentration of extracellular tryptophol in the biosynthesis of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis ranged from 2.45 µg/mL to 191 µg/mL, respectively. Contrary to previously published data, gliotoxin or gliotoxin-like compounds were not detected, and all investigated C. albicans and C. dubliniensis strains have the same metabolite profile. Cytotoxic effects of tryptophol and 3-indolelactic acid (precursor of tryptophol biosynthesis) were cell-line-dependent. The EC50 of tryptophol ranged between 2 and 7 mM, with the EC50 of 3-indolelactic acid approximately double (between 4 and 8 mM). Tryptophol exhibited cell-type dependent cytotoxicity in relatively high concentrations, with domination of apoptosis.

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