Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
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CXC-chemokines play an essential role in co-ordinating the function of the immune system. Increasingly, these small signaling molecules are recognized in facilitating communication between multiple cell types within the tumor microenvironment. This review will summarize the role of two members of this family, CXCL12 (stromal cell derived factor-1) and CXCL8 (interleukin-8) in promoting the disease progression of prostate cancer, the most prevalent non-cutaneous cancer in men in western society and the second leading cause of death from cancer in men. Evidence for a role of these chemokines in underpinning the development and progression of this disease is supported by examination of prostate tissue and serum samples from prostate cancer patients, from biochemical and molecular investigations conducted on cell-based models of this disease and from observation of CXC-chemokine promoted growth and systemic dissemination of human prostate tumors in in vivo models. The future potential of employing strategies to attenuate chemokine expression or alternatively to selectively block chemokine receptor signaling in order to effect greater long-term control or enhanced therapeutic response in this disease is also discussed.