IMR Press / FBL / Volume 12 / Issue 13 / DOI: 10.2741/2444

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Combination of physical activity, nutrition, or other metabolic factors and vaccine response
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1 Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
2 Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
3 Department of Carcinogenesis, University of Texas and M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX 78957, USA
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2007, 12(13), 4997–5029;
Published: 1 September 2007

A number of lifestyle factors that reduce cancer risk in the primary prevention setting may be potential new targets for use in combination with cancer vaccines. This review discusses the modulation of energy balance (physical activity, calorie restriction, and obesity prevention), and the supplementation with natural and synthetic analogs of vitamins A and E, as potential interventions for use in combination with cancer vaccines. Additionally, the pharmacologic manipulation of nutrient metabolism in the tumor microenvironment (e.g., arachidonic acid, arginine, tryptophan, and glucose metabolism) is discussed. This review includes a brief overview of the role of each agent in primary cancer prevention; outlines the effects of these agents on immune function, specifically adaptive and/or anti-tumor immune mechanisms, when known; and discusses the potential use of these interventions in combination with therapeutic cancer vaccines. Modulation of energy balance through exercise and strategies targeting nutrient metabolism in the tumor microenvironment represent the most promising interventions to partner with therapeutic cancer vaccines. Additionally, the use of vitamin E succinate and the retinoid X receptor-directed rexinoids in combination with cancer vaccines offer promise. In summary, a number of energy balance- and nutrition-related interventions are viable candidates for further study in combination with cancer vaccines.

calorie restriction
obesity prevention
Vitamin A
arachidonic acid
cancer vaccine
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