Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Academic Editor: Joseph Shapiro
Na/K-ATPase can function as a signal transducer as well as an energy transducing ion pump. Cardiac glycosides (including ouabain and marinobufagin, MBG) are a new class of steroid hormones. Ouabain-activated signaling pathways lead to the induction of some early response proto-oncogenes, activation of transcription factors, and cardiac hypertrophy. Low concentration of ouabain also induced endocytosis of the Na/K-ATPase and compartmentalization of some signaling molecules (e.g. c-Src, EGFR, and p42/44 MAPKs) into clathrin-coated pits, early and late endosomes. Ouabain-induced endocytosis of the Na/K-ATPase depends on the activation of Src kinase, clathrin-coated pits formation, and caveolin-1 (the major component of caveolae). Moreover, low concentration ouabain significantly reduced transcellular Na+ transport. The data also show a stronge interplay of ouabain-induced endocytosis of the Na/K-ATPase and signaling transduction.